Niacinamide (Vitamin B3) is indicated to reduce the appearance of skin blemishes and congestion. A high 10% concentration of this vitamin is supported in the formula by zinc salt of pyrrolidone carboxylic acid to balance visible aspects of sebum activity. Contraindications: If topical Vitamin C is used as part of skincare, it should be applied at alternate times with this formula (ideally Vitamin C in the PM and this formula in the AM). Otherwise, Niacinamide can affect integrity of pure-form Vitamin C (L-Ascorbic Acid). Note: While Niacinamide and Zinc PCA reduce the look of blemishes and balance visible sebum activity, neither is a treatment for acne. For persistent acne-related conditions, we recommend the use of Benzoyl Peroxide and/or Retinoic Acid. We do not recommend the use of Salicylic Acid. This formulation can be used alongside acne treatments if desired for added visible skin benefits.
Apply to entire face morning and evening before heavier creams.
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Aqua (Water), Niacinamide, Pentylene Glycol, Zinc PCA, Tamarindus Indica Seed Gum, Xanthan Gum, Isoceteth-20, Ethoxydiglycol, Phenoxyethanol, Chlorphenesin.
Note: Due to the presence of zinc in this formula, most stabilizing technologies could not be used. The formula uses a naturally-derived, food-grade carrageenan to maintain stability. A single and highly-disputed study on degraded (and not food-grade) carrageenan had shown that ingestion of degraded carrageenan with high levels of poligeenan can lead to internal inflammation. No study has ever found that non-degraded (food grade) carrageenan would cause inflammation if ingested. Furthermore, carrageenan itself cannot penetrate the skin as its molecular size is far too big. It instead loses viscosity under any slight pressure (such as skin application) and allows for exposure of actives. Certain blogs have misinterpreted the study on carrageenan and concluded that extremely small amounts (around 0.1%) of food-grade carrageenan (the only kind used in topical products) applied topically can be inflammatory. This conclusion is completely without basis as it was an exaggeration of the single disputed study that showed internal inflammation from ingestion of very-high-dose degraded carrageenan containing high levels of poligeenan. There is no relevance of this study to topical application of very small amounts of food-grade, non-degraded carrageenan. Topical pure carrageenan is not inflammatory and will not cause breakouts. (It is also interesting to note that other studies have shown that ingestion of carrageenan actually can unclog pores but the matter does not relate to this formulation.)